OK, so. Urakkalan and Vland. Here goes:

I start by taking Vland's given

*V&V* temperature, and converting it into a blackbody temperature. After adjusting by the standard greenhouse rating for the atmosphere (1.1, a little low, in my opinion), and then adjusting for its

*V&V* listed albedo (0.26 -- lower than

*Mars?!*), while also adjusting THAT number by ^1/4, to account for Vland's rotation, I arrive at a blackbody effective temperature of 285.47K.

Since I think that the given albedo is a little low, I also ran the numbers for 0.306 (Terra's most often given number), and arrive at a blackbody of 290.09K. Just to see how that works out.

For the orbital period to work with, I chose the 1.312 standard year number (479.21 standard days), because that number is all over the calendars, and as such has wider impact on the OTU.

To find Vland's orbit location, I used the formula: r = (T^2*GM/4pi^2)^1/3, where T is the orbital period (in seconds), G is the Gravitational Constant, M is Urakkalan's mass (in kilograms), and pi is ... well ... pi.

The number I arrive at is 187,294,723.4km, or 1.2520 AU.

For Urakkalan's effective temperature (Teff), I was initially going to go with three potential numbers (6120, 6150 & 6170), but then I realized that I should do what any good Traveller referee/world builder would do -- play dice with the universe! So I rolled a single d6 for the standard F8 range of 6120-70 (at 10 degrees per pip), and then for extra giggles rolled 2d-2 for the single degrees.

I wound up with a Teff of 6154K (1.0651 Sol), which is actually pretty bog-standard for an F8 star.

Now we can figure things out!

Stellar radius we can derive from the formula: r = (T^2*2R)/Teff^2. Luminosity is Teff^4*Radius^2. I can extrapolate Urakkalan's stellar age from my personal tables, as well as adjust for metallicity (A 1.14 Sol star is typically about 6080K at Solar metallicity, so the Fe/H needs to be dropped down a hair to adjust the temperature upwards).

First, Urakkalan's stats for the closest thing to canonical information available --

*V&V's* world temperature and albedo:

Teff: 6154K

Mass: 1.14 Sol

Radius: 806,031.9km (1.1586 Sol)

Luminosity: 1.7275 Sol

Age: 1.719 billion years

Metallicity: -0.06 Fe/H (87% Solar Metallicity)

That's not really bad at all! Pretty decent, even. At under two billion years (less than half of Sol's 4.603 billion years), though, Urrakalan does seem a little young, particularly when you consider that Vland, at about 140+% Terra's mass, will take at least that much longer for its interior to cool down.

I wouldn't mind Urakkalan being a little older, then, to perhaps allow Vland to be a bit less of a potentially shakey, volcanoey, sulfury/carbon dioxidey environment, as well as to give the local life forms a little more time to evolve; but one must also remember that Urakkalan has only 6.1 billion years of main sequence life to work with in the first place, due to its larger mass.

Now, Urakkalan's stats at

*V&V's* world temperature, but with a Terra-like albedo:

Teff: 6154K (1.0651 Sol, F8V)

Mass: 1.14 Sol

Radius: 832,332.4km (1.1964 Sol)

Luminosity: 1.8421 Sol

Age: 2.322 billion years

Metallicity: -0.06 Fe/H (87% Solar Metallicity)

A bit better, age wise; almost approaching middle age already.

Now, since I have always rather liked the idea of Vland being something of a hothouse -- though still habitable -- world, I thought I would see what Urakkalan might look like under a regime where Vland's world temperature was the same as Terra's during its most recent hothouse phase: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (about 55.5Ma before present), when Terra's temperature reached 29.7C (302.85K)!

Urakkalan (at

*V&V* albedo and 302.85K Vland Temperature/296.84 Vland Blackbody):

Teff: 6154K (1.0651 Sol, F8V)

Mass: 1.14 Sol

Radius: 871,517.5km (1.2527 Sol)

Luminosity: 2.0196 Sol

Age: 2.720 billion years

Metallicity: -0.06 Fe/H (87% Solar Metallicity)

Urakkalan (at Terra albedo and 302.85 Vland Temperature/301.64 Vland Blackbody)

Teff: 6154 (1.0651 Sol, F8V)

Mass: 1.14K Sol

Radius: 899,930.8km (1.2935 Sol)

Luminosity: 2.1532 Sol

Age: 3.872 billion years

Metallicity: -0.06 Fe/H (87% Solar Metallicity)

Those numbers speak enough for themselves. In the latter, Urakkalan/Vland is almost as old as Sol/Terra, though geologically speaking, Vland is likely more like Terra was about 1.9-2 billion years ago.

So, anyway, that's the analysis. Comments and helpful critiques, corrections or suggestions are appreciated!