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Old August 14th, 2017, 08:42 PM
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Default Gvegh "Bare-Bones" Partial Grammar

This is a hypothetical grammar of the Vargr language "Gvegh" using ideas teased out of one half-page of DGP's Vilani & Vargr, plus filler based loosely on some of Alien Module 3's grammar of Arrghoun. I'll keep this page updated as I update the grammar.

This is not intended to be a comprehensive grammar. It is intended to be a partial grammar for the purposes of putting some simple sentences together in a reasonably consistent and understandable way.


SYNTAX

It's SVO. How boring... but then, Vargr were intended to be an "introductory" alien race, aren't they?

[[ADJECTIVALS] SUBJECT] - [ADVERBS] - [VERB ENCLITICS] - VERB - [[ADJECTIVALS] OBJECT] - [TAGH [ADJECTIVALS] INDIRECT OBJECT].

"Adjectival" includes verbs being used as noun modifiers... I guess.

"TAGH" marks the beginning of an indirect object (and I suppose it could also be used to start a relative clause... wouldn't that be fun. But I won't spend time thinking about that right now).


VERBS

Verbs are inflected for simple tense, negation, tense+aspect, and person (1,2,3, singular and plural). Simple tense (past, future) is a prefix. Negation, person and tense-aspect (perfective, imperfective, continuous, progressive) are suffixes.

The two different sets of tense affixes are a minor convenience: use the simple tense prefixes, unless you need a nuance. If you're trying to express something beyond "was" and "will", then use the tense+aspect suffixes.

The simple tense and person are indicators that Gvegh is related in some way to the archaic Arrghoun language. I'm not going to make Arrghoun a direct ancestor, however, regardless of what TD3 says.


[SIMPLE TENSE] - STEM - [NEG] - [ASPECT] - [PERSON]

Simple Past: sok-
Simple Future: khuz-

Negation: -aekh. Example: kva, allow; kvaekh, not allow.

Present Perfect: -okh
Past Perfect: -(n)ae
Present Imperfect: -(s)aez
Past Imperfect: -(s)aen
Continuous: -ruz
Progressive: -kfaz

1s: -tul
1p: -dhuez
2s: -thos
2p: -dos
3s: -thes
3p: -des

Examples using llanan, devour:

sokllananaekhtul. sok-llanan-aekh-tul. I did not devour [it].
llananaenduez. llanan-aen-duez. We had been devouring [it].

Verb enclitics express mood.

Conditional: khaz
Imperative: tsoe
Inferential: kfaz
Interrogative who: khou
Interrogative what: noek
Interrogative when: gon
Interrogative where: gha
Interrogative why: llez
Interrogative how: guek
Optative: saez
Tentative: ruz


NOUNS

Plurals are marked with a suffix -z (-rz with vowel-final nouns).

Possession is implied by placing the owned noun in front of the owning noun; if the ownership is a formal claim of authority (like an obligation or legal), the suffix -eg is added to the owning noun.

Abstract nouns can be made from verbs using the suffix -khin. Example: zou, to cultivate, zoukhin, culture. They can also be made via the suffix -adz. Example: kaenguerr, to be superior (verb); kaenguerradz, superiority (abstract noun). Usage of one over the other appears to be based on preference.

ku- is a collectivizer. Example: kuvargr, a pack of Vargr.

Reduplication abstracts a noun: "_X_ _X_" = "Any given _X_".


PRONOUNS

U I
Oe We
Ue You-singular
Sue You-plural
A They-singular
Sa They-plural
Goll It-singular
Sagoll It-plural
Zoez That-previously-mentioned (see TAGH section)

ADVERBS

Adverbs come before the verb. Adverbs can be created from verbs with the suffix -veng.


ADJECTIVES

Adjectives come before the noun, as in English. Also like English, there's no agreement in number with the noun.

-a can be used when using a noun to modify another noun. Example: zersakh, rock; zersakha vargr, rock-like Vargr.


"TAGH" CASE MARKER

I think Tagh is the Gvegh word that marks the beginning of an auxiliary phrase, sort of how "that" is used sometimes in English. Indirect objects can be hung directly off of it, as can subordinate or relative clauses... but I don't have rules on how these clauses refer back to nouns in the sentence.

...except one: Zoez, which is a pronoun referring back to the object of the previous phrase.



WORD LIST

Code:
Aekh            adj     Absence of -
Dzedzghoughz    n       Teeth
Gha?                    Where?
Ghakse          n       Toy
Gon?                    When?
Guek?                   How?
Gvegh           n       Gvegh language
Gvegh gvegh     n       Spoken words
Kaenguerr       v       to be Superior
Kaenguerradz    n       Racial superiority
Kfaeg           n       Gvegh person
Kfaegzoukhin    n       Gvegh cultural sphere; Charisma
Khou?                   Who?
Kuvargr         n       A pack of Vargr
Kva             v       to Allow
LLanan          v       to Devour
LLez?                   Why?
Noek?                   What?
Orez                   Four
Ou                     Five
Sa                     Two
Thes                   One
Thursuth        n       Death
Tourz           n       Sector
Uerul           n       Small one
Urs             n       Ear
Vak                    Three
Vargr           n       Vargr
Zersakh         n       Rock
Zhos            v       to Respect
Zhosveng        adv     Respectfully
Zou             v       to Cultivate; Nurture
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Last edited by robject; August 16th, 2017 at 10:49 AM..
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